Other fossil groups, such as vertebrates or other larger fossils, can only be used if the sediments samples are sufficiently large.
In practice, this limits their use to outcrop samples.
The two main environments are land (terrestrial) and sea (marine).
In terrestrial sediments, spores and pollen are the fossil group to use.
More than two hundred years ago, before formulation of the theory of evolution, it became apparent that the same general succession of faunas could be recognized in different rocks at widely separated locations.
The first downhole occurrence (“ ” in the illustration below) in a well section is the datum most commonly used.
The resolving power of correlation improved significantly when petroleum companies began to apply sequences of microfo ...
Biostratigraphy is a sub-discipline of sedimentary geology that relies on the physical zonation of biota, both in time and space, in order to establish the relative stratigraphic position (i.e.
The limitation on the use of spore/pollen is the amount of oxidation experienced by the sediments after deposition.
Oxygen will remove organic material (spores/pollen) from the sediments. 400 myrs) to recent sediments, pollen in Upper Cretaceous (approx. Both can be found blown into marine environments in considerable amounts.