while two Marian dogmas are ancient, the other two were defined in the 19th and 20th centuries; and papal teachings on Mary have continued to appear in recent times.In parallel to the traditional views, since the late 19th century, a number of other perspectives have been presented as a challenge to Roman Catholic Mariology.Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed.Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, enclaved within Rome, Italy.Other Christian views see Mariology as unbiblical and a denial of the uniqueness of Christ as redeemer and mediator The study of Mary and her place in the Catholic Church has been undertaken from a number of perspectives and within a number of contexts, and in his address to the 2012 Mariological congress, Pope Benedict XVI stated that this study must be "understood and deeply examined from different and complementary viewpoints".Pope Benedict XVI has also emphasized that the study of Mary can not be performed in isolation from other disciplines and that Mariology is inherently related to the study of Christ and of the Church, and expresses the inner coherence of these disciplines.
A research on the various usages that have obtained in this connexion would lead us too far from our present subject, but is taken up under CARDINAL; PAPAL CONSISTORY.
As, on the other hand, the increased numbers of cases to be passed upon occupied a great number of persons, while the proper administration of justice required that those persons should be of the most experienced, it appeared to be advisable, if not necessary, to divide this business into various and distinct groups.
This division would evidently facilitate the selection of wise and experienced men in all branches of ecclesiastical affairs.
Mary is seen as having a singular dignity above the saints.
The Catholic Church teaches that she was conceived without original sin therefore receiving a higher level of veneration than all other saints.